KELIMPAHAN, ASOSIASI DAN ANCAMAN HABITAT Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT

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Sunardi Sunardi
Muhammad Mansur

Abstrak

Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f. merupakan jenis endemik dengan status konservasi rentan (vulnerable) menurut IUCN Red List. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kelimpahan populasi, asosiasi, dan keterancaman habitat N. bicalcarata di Cagar Alam Mandor, Kalimantan Barat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis vegetasi, asosiasi jenis tumbuhan menggunakan indeks Ochiai, dan metode unsupervised classification pada citra Landsat 8 untuk mengetahui perubahan penutupan lahan. Penentuan lokasi pengambilan data dilakukan menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Pengambilan data vegetasi tumbuhan menggunakan sepuluh plot berukuran 10Í10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa N. bicalcarata tersebar di delapan dari 14 kabupaten/kota di Kalimantan Barat. Populasi N. bicalcarata pada hutan kerangas berjumlah 300 individu/ha dan dan berasosiasi dengan jenis pohon Cratoxylum glaucum, Gymnostoma nobile, Antidesma coriaceum, Ficus variegata, dan Tristaniopsis merguensis. N. bicalcarata juga berasosiasi dengan Nepenthes lainnya, seperti N. ampullaria, N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. mirabilis dan N. hookeriana. Perubahan penutupan lahan yang signifikan mengakibatkan peningkatan luasan areal terbuka dan pertambangan, sehingga mengancam habitat dan populasi N. bicalcarata. Kelimpahan N. bicalcarata di CA Mandor diprediksi akan semakin berkurang dengan adanya ancaman perubahan penutupan lahan tersebut. Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, jenis ini perlu dilindungi dan dijaga kelestariannya di alam.

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Cara Mengutip
Sunardi S, Mansur M. 2021. KELIMPAHAN, ASOSIASI DAN ANCAMAN HABITAT Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT. Buletin Kebun Raya 24(2): 66-75. https://doi.org/10.14203/bkr.v24i2.734

Referensi

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  2. Adam JH, Hamid HA, Juhairi MAA, Ahmad SN, Idris WMR. 2011. Species composition and dispersion pattern of pitcher plants recorded from Rantau Abang in Marang District, Terrenganu state of Malaysia. International Journal of Botany 7(2): 162–169. DOI: 10.3923/ijb.2011.162.169.
  3. Airy Shaw HK. 1972. Thymelaeaceae-Gonystyloideae. Flora Malesiana I 4(4): 249–365.
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  6. Bazile V, Moran JA, Le Mogue´dec G, Marshall DJ, Gaume L. 2012. A carnivorous plant fed by its ant symbiont: A unique multi-faceted nutritional mutualism. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36179. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0036179.
  7. Bonhomme V, Gounand I, Alaux C, Jousselin E, Barthélémy D, Gaume L. 2011. The plant-ant Camponotus schmitzi helps its carnivorous host-plant Nepenthes bicalcarata to catch its prey. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27(1): 15–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0266467410000532.
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  33. Maysarah, Zuhud EM, Hikmat A. 2016. Populasi dan habitat Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. di Cagar Alam Mandor, Kalimantan Barat. Media Konservasi 21(2): 125–134.
  34. Moran JA. 1996. Pitcher dimorphism, prey composition and the mechanisms of prey attraction in the pitcher plant Nepenthes rafflesiana in Borneo. The Journal of Ecology 84(4): 515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2261474.
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  57. Airy Shaw HK. 1972. Thymelaeaceae-Gonystyloideae. Flora Malesiana I 4(4): 249–365.
  58. Balai Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan Wilayah III. 2004. Laporan Hasil Orientasi Batas Kawasan Hutan Cagar Alam Mandor, Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. Badan Planologi Kehutanan, Pontianak.
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  62. Brearley FQ, Mansur M. 2012. Nutrient stoichiometry of Nepenthes species from a Bornean Peat Swamp Forest. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41: 105–108.
  63. Cheek M, Jebb M. 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora Malesiana 15. Leiden, Netherlands.
  64. Chin L, Chung AYC, Clarke C. 2014. Interspecific variation in prey capture behaviour by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants – evidence for resource partitioning or sampling-scheme artefacts? Plant Signalling and Behaviour 9: e27930. DOI: 10.4161/psb.27930.
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  68. Clarke CM, Lee C. 2014. Nepenthes clipeata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T39652A19631488.
  69. Clarke C, Moran JA. 2016. Climate, soils and vicariance - their roles in shaping the diversity and distribution of Nepenthes in Southeast Asia. Plant and Soil 403(12): 37–51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11104-015-2696-x.
  70. Cox GW. 1967. Laboratory Manual of General Ecology. Wm. C. Brown Co. Publisher, Iowa.
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  72. Damayanti F, Mansur M, Roostika I. 2011. Diversity of Nepenthes spp. in West Kalimantan. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 3(13): 705–708.
  73. Gaume L, Bazile V, Huguin M, Bonhomme V. 2016. Different pitcher shapes and trapping syndromes explain resource partitioning in Nepenthes species. Ecology and Evolution 6(5): 1378–1392. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1920.
  74. Gaveau DLA, Sloan S, Molidena E, Yaen H, Sheil D, Yaen H, Sheil D, Abram NK, Ancrenaz M, Nasi R, Quinones M, Wielaard N, Meijaard E. 2014. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101654. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101654.
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  78. Kristianus, Astiani D, Herawatiningsih R. 2018. Keanekaragaman jenis kantong semar (Nepenthes spp.) di berbagai kondisi tutupan hutan sekunder desa Bukit Batu kecamatan Sungai Kunyit Kabupaten Mempawah. Jurnal Hutan Lestari 6(2): 318–328.
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  80. Listiawati A, Siregar C. 2008. Entuyut (Nepenthes) asal Kalimantan Barat. Untan press. Pontianak.
  81. Ludwig JA, Reynold JS. 1988. Statistical Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  82. Mansur M, Brearley FQ. 2009. Ecological Study on Nepenthes at Barito Ulu, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Proceeding of the 2007 Sarawak Nepenthes Summit. Sarawak Forestry Corporation Published. p. 26–34.
  83. Mansur M. 2013. Tinjauan tentang Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) di Indonesia. Berita Biologi 12(1): 1–7.
  84. Mansur M, Rode-Margono EJ, Esseen PJ, Brearley FQ, Jakalalana S, Rachmat F, Haqet RJN. 2020a. Diversity, abundance and ethnobotany of Nepenthes in Mandor Nature Reserve, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Planta Carnivora Journal 41(1): 12–26.
  85. Mansur M, Rode-Margono J, Esseen P, Rachmat F, Jakalalana S, Tarigan RM. 2020b. Nepenthes diversity in Mount Kelam, Sintang, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia; with an emphasis on the status of the site-endemic, critically endangered Nepenthes clipeata Danser. Proceeding of The Science and Mathematics International Conference. https://confbrite.org/2020/smic/kfz/abstract/4Z9amw6bd
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  87. Maysarah, Zuhud EM, Hikmat A. 2016. Populasi dan habitat Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. di Cagar Alam Mandor, Kalimantan Barat. Media Konservasi 21(2): 125–134.
  88. Moran JA. 1996. Pitcher dimorphism, prey composition and the mechanisms of prey attraction in the pitcher plant Nepenthes rafflesiana in Borneo. The Journal of Ecology 84(4): 515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2261474.
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  90. Moran JA, Gray LK, Clarke C, Chin L. 2013. Capture mechanism in Palaeotropical pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) is constrained by climate. Annals of Botany 112(7): 1279–1291. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1093/aob/mct195.
  91. Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  92. Nadiah I, Soepadmo E. 2011. A synopsis of Coelostegia (Bombacaceae/Malvaceae: Helicteroideae: Durioneae) and new records from Borneo. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 63(1&2): 125–135.
  93. Nurhadi A, Linda R, Mukarlina. 2018. Keanekaragaman jenis kantong semar (Nepenthes spp.) di kawasan Taman Wisata Alam Baning, Kabupaten Sintang, Kalimantan Barat. Protobiont 7(3): 111–117.
  94. Phillipps A, Lamb A. 1996. Pitcher-Plants of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd. Kota Kinabalu.
  95. Rizqiani S, Ariyanti NS, Sulistijorini. 2018. Diversity of lowland Nepenthes (pitcher plants) in Bangka Belitung Islands. Proceeding of The 2nd International Conference on Biosciences (ICoBio). IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environmental Science: 197.
  96. Sampurno, Mulya R, Thoriq A. 2016. Klasifikasi tutupan lahan menggunakan citra LANDSAT 8 operational land imager (OLI) di Kabupaten Sumedang. Jurnal Teknotan 10(2): 61–70.
  97. Schnell D, Catling P, Folkerts G, Frost C, Gardner R. 2000a. Nepenthes boschiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2000: e.T40104A10314124.
  98. Schnell D, Catling P, Folkerts G, Frost C, Gardner R. 2000b. Nepenthes bicalcarata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2000: e.T39624A10252393.
  99. Septiani R, I Putu Ananda C, Nugraha AS. 2019. Perbandingan metode supervised classification dan unsupervised classification terhadap penutup lahan di Kabupaten Buleleng. Jurnal Geografi 16(2): 90–96.
  100. Setiawan H. 2017. Nepenthes as tourism flagship species: The conservation strategies in Dayak Seberuang Settlements Area. Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies 5(2): 113–120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jitode.2017.005.02.07
  101. Setiawan H, Wardhani HAK, Kamaludin K, Hutagol RRr, Afriani R. 2018. The diversity of Nepenthes at the post-mining area in Sintang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 19(5): 1820–1827. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/ d190532.
  102. Sidiyasa K, Mansur M, Triono T, Rachman I. 2010. Panduan Identifikasi Jenis-jenis Ramin (Gonystylus spp.) di Indonesia. ITTO CITES Project–Pusat Litbang Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Kementerian Kehutanan, Bogor.
  103. Sudarmono. 2007. Kepulauan Indonesia dan tumbuhan endemik. Warta Kebun Raya 7(1): 19–23.
  104. Sukmawati JG. 2019. Keanekaragaman dan distribusi ekologis Ficus spp. di Kalimantan. Buletin Kebun Raya 22(2): 85–94.
  105. Sutomo. 2015. Komposisi komunitas tumbuhan bawah di dalam plot permanen 1 Ha Gunung Pohen Cagar Alam Batukahu Bali. Jurnal Metamorfosa 2(1): 41–49.
  106. Suwardi AB, Navia ZI. 2015. Keanekaragaman jenis kantong semar (Nepenthes spp.) di hutan rawa gambut Kalimantan Barat. Jurnal Jeumpa 2(2): 56–63.
  107. van der Ent A, Sumail S, Clarke C. 2015. Habitat differentiation of obligate ultramafic Nepenthes endemic to Mount Kinabalu and Mount Tambuyukon (Sabah, Malaysia). Plant Ecology 216(6): 789–807. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11258-015-0468-6.
  108. Zulkarnaen RN, Peniwidiyanti, Rivai RR, Helmanto H, Wanda IF. 2017. Struktur dan Asosiasi Komunitas Tumbuhan Bawah di Resort Cikaniki, Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak. Jurnal Ilmu Alam dan Lingkungan 8 (16): 21–30.